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Abrasion
Loss of tooth substance when teeth are exposed to friction, e.g. from opposing tooth structures, or due to an incorrect technique when cleaning, or as a result of grinding (bruxism).
Abutment (implant)
The term in dentistry for a connecting element between the implant anchored in the bone and the prosthetic construction that rests on the implant (superstructure).
Adhesive cementation
A method of bonding restorations in dentistry, particularly in the case of composite fillings and all-ceramic restorations such as crowns, veneers, etc. In this case, a low-viscosity acrylic (bonding agent) creates a bond between the tooth substance (enamel, dentin) and the corresponding filling material (often a composite).
Airflow
Measure in which dental plaque can be removed using a powderblaster, air-abrasive device. Airflow is not only an oral hygienic treatment in the field of professional tooth cleaning but also an esthetical method and can be compared to procedures such as bleaching.
Allergy patients
Patients with allergic reactions to certain materials such as metallic substances.
Aluminum oxide
Oxygen compound of the chemical element aluminum. Due to its excellent biocompatibility it is widely used in dentistry.
Alveolus
Also referred to as a tooth socket. This is a cavity in the jaw bone that holds the tooth and its roots. Together with the cementum, periodontal ligament and gingiva, the alveoli form part of the periodontium.
Amalgam
Alloy of mercury (40 % silver min., 32 % tin max., 30 % copper max., 5 % indium max., 3 % mercury max. and 2 % zinc max.). Mercury amalgam is widely used in dentistry as a tooth filling material. However, since its introduction its use is a highly controversial topic. Up to now, real damages caused by amalgam could however not be proven.
Amalgam sanitation
Removal of amalgam fillings and replacement by composite fillings or ceramic inlays.
Abutment tooth
Tooth that anchors a crown or bridge.
Apical
Term that refers to positioning at or towards the apex of the root.
Approximal
Term that refers to positioning towards or facing the adjacent tooth.
Articulator
Technical device used in dentistry to simulate the movement of the temporomandibular joint and contact points between the teeth. Essential aid in the fabrication of restorations.
Augmentation
In dentistry, surgical extension of the jaw bone for corrective purposes, generally with a view to restoring lost osseous tissue as part of prosthetic and/or implant-based treatment.
Acrylic
Acrylic is a possible alternative for metal-free dental restorations. These materials are tooth-colored but may lead to intolerances and are less durable compared to other materials such as gold and ceramics.
Acrylic / prefabricated teeth
Industrially prefabricated teeth made from acrylic that are secured on a denture base through polymerization.
Alloys
Alloys are mixtures consisting of two or more components, at least one of which must be a metal.
Allergic symptoms caused by metals
Certain metals can give rise to allergic symptoms such as headaches, arrhythmia, gastrointestinal disorders, constant tiredness, sleep disturbances or inflammatory responses of the mucus membranes.
All-ceramic crown
Crown that is manufactured without a metal framework; it entirely consists of ceramics. In terms of esthetics and oral compatibility it represents the ideal crown type.
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